Total Pageviews

Wednesday, 16 May 2012

Studing Explosions

Bomb Deposits

When a bomb explodes, a lot of it is thrown far away from the scene. Investigators search for any possible fragments of the bomb by agents that react by changing colour when it comes in contact with fuel. Fragments that carry traces of unburned fuel are taken back to the laboratory, where they are studied under microscopes. The shapes of the fuel particles are identified and are then washed in water and a colourless and inflammable liquid called acetone. The purpose of this process is to turn the particles into a liquid solution for further testing.
Another method used is thin-layer chromatography, which involves the liquid sample being pushed in an upward direction by a specially coated plate, using an organic solvent that soaks upwards from the base. The different components in the liquid sample move up at different speeds and separate onto a plate, which then allows the solution to be identified.

Fragments

Even though when a bomb explodes, it is reduced tiny fragments, these fragments can still lead investigators to the bomb's creator. Occasionally, the fragments of the bomb may carry fingerprints, but in most situations, a piece of a bomb simply leads to determining where the bomb was manufactured. Explosives units around the world usually retain a large collection of frequently used bomb parts, batteries, timers, remote control devices and fuel components, which makes it possible for investigators find similarities between certain blasts.

How to Make a bomb from household items

Acetone Peroxide
Acetone Peroxide is an explosive made with 2 easy to get ingredients. Be careful doing this because AP is a highly volatile and unpredictable.

Chemicals needed
Acetone
Hydrogen Peroxide
Muriatic Acid (If you don't have this around go to a pool store)

Items needed
2 Glass Jars
Measuring cup
Old T shirt or rag

How to make it
1-First you wan't to Measure out 650mL of Acetone.
2-Now Measure out 1000 ml of Hydrogen peroxide.
3-Put both of these in a jar stir and mix them together well.
4-Put this mixture in your freezer for about 5 minutes.
5-Get your second jar and measure out 500 mL muriatic acid.
6-Cover the jar and put it in the freezer for an hour or 2.
7-Once you take it out mix this and the hydrogen peroxide/Acetone mixture together.
8-Put this new mixture in the freezer for 24 hours and you should see a white substance at the bottom of the jar. This is the AP.

Molotov Cocktail
The Molotov cocktail is an extremely easy to make incendiary device you can make at home.

What you need
1-Glass bottle
2-A rag
3-Gasoline
4-Motor oil
5-Styrofoam (Optional)

How to make it
1-Fill the glass bottle half way with gasoline.
2-Fill 25% of the bottle with Motor oil
3-If you have the Styrofoam you can add this to the mixture as a thickening agent. This will cause it to stick to whatever you threw it at and it will make it burn longer.
4-Tie a rag or other piece of cloth around the neck of the bottle.
5-Soak the rag in gasoline of kerosene and throw it.

Sparkler Bomb
Even though you may not have sparklers laying around they are easily found and dirt cheap. For this one all you need to do is a buy a lot of sparklers. The more you buy obviously the bigger the explosion will be.

Wrap the sparklers together tightly with electrical tape. As a fuse you can use another sparkler that is sticking out of the bomb. The more safe way is to just go and get some cannon fuse. Light this and it will blow up.

Pipe Bomb
Get a section of metal water pipe, about 1/2 inch around and 6 inches long.
Get two metal caps that are sized to fit that pipe. These are easily
acquired in most hardware stores.

Drill a hole, about 1/16 inch in diameter, in the center of the pipe this is where the fuse will go. Screw one of the caps onto the pipe. Then you want to run the fuse through the pipe. After that what you want to do is take the black powder or other explosive and fill the pipe with it. You can also add nails or other objects for extra shrapnel. Once you've done this put the other cap onto the end of the pipe and you're ready to go.

Works Bomb
The works bomb isn't really that lethal but it's extremely simple to make and can be fun. All you need is some tin foil and some works toilet cleaner. You will also need a bottle of some kind. Thicker bottles such as a Gatorade one will make a louder explosion. All you have to do is cut the foil into strips and put them in the bottle. Then add enough works cleaner equal to the foil. Shake it and throw it. It can take up to a minute to explode but when you see white smoke forming in the bottle you know it's working.

Terrorist attacks using Explosives

Thursday, July 7, 2005 ---- Coordinated terrorist attack hits London ----

Three bomb explosions have hit London Underground trains, and a further bomb destroyed a bus in the city centre. The Metropolitan Police Service has initially confirmed that 33 people have been killed in the four explosions on London's transport system this morning, and said the overall number of wounded was as high as 700, in what are believed to be terrorist attacks.


Read the full story at : http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Coordinated_terrorist_attack_hits_London


Bali 2002– a vehicle bomb parked outside a popular tourist venue exploded killing 202 people. The device contained a chlorate mixture explosive and was one of the first attacks causing numerous Australian casualties – 88 Australians were killed.

To read some more terrorist attacks using explosives click the link below;

http://www.chemicalsecurity.gov.au/www/chemsec/chemsec.nsf/Page/Chemicals_of_security_concern

How Explosives Work

Explosives are chemicals and, like all chemicals, should be treated safely and with respect.
Unlike other chemicals, most explosives detonate rather than burn. A detonation is a very rapid chemical reaction using oxygen that is contained in the material rather than in the air. In a detonation, the chemical reaction releases gases that rapidly expand and give off energy as they become hot.

Two Basic Types

Low Explosives

For many years, black powder was the most common low explosive used throughout the world. But black powder, or gun powder as it was commonly called, produced a large amount of smoke and was dangerous to use. Today black powder is still used for pyrotechnics (fireworks), special effects, and other specialized work, but it has been replaced in commercial blasting by safer, more productive explosive materials.

High Explosives

High explosives create more pressure and burn more quickly, detonating almost instantaneously. The proper use of high explosives by today’s explosives engineer, produces minimal ground vibrations and air overpressure.
The first high explosive used in commercial blasting was nitroglycerine, also called "blasting oil." Nitroglycerine was dangerous to use because it is an unstable chemical. But in the late 1800’s, a Swedish chemist, named Alfred Nobel, invented dynamite by mixing nitroglycerine with a special clay, called kieselghur, and packed it into sticks.
Dynamite became the first safe high explosive used. It can be dropped, hit with a hammer or even burned and will not accidentally explode. There are a number of different types of dynamites being used today, all containing nitroglycerine.

History of Explosives.

The time line below presents the history of the explosives industry... a tradition of excellence in mining, quarrying, construction, and many other pursuits involving the peaceful use of explosives to break rock in service to mankind.

1200 A.D.

Arabian author Abd Allah records use of saltpeter as main ingredient of black powder.

1242

English Friar Roger Bacon publishes gunpowder formula.

1380

German Franciscan Monk, Berthold Schwarts developed gunpowder and its use in guns.
German Franciscan Friar Sebastian Munster
Berthold Schwarts
German Franciscan Monk

1745

Doctor Watson of British Royal Society explodes black powder with an electric spark.

1750

American inventor Benjamin Franklin encases and compresses powder in cartridges.

1831

William Bickford of Cornwall, England invents Safety Fuse.

1846

Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero discovers nitroglycerine.

1863

Wilbrand invents Trinitrotoluene (TNT).

1864

Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel develops first detonating blasting cap.
Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
The Father of Explosives

1866

Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invents dynamite by mixing kieselguhr with nitroglycerine.

1875

Nobel patents blasting gelatine.

1884

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) becomes widely used in dynamite formulations.

1885

Two component explosives used in New York Harbor.

1888

Nobel invents ballistite, a dense smokeless powder.

1885

Permitted explosives officially recognized in Europe.

1902

Detonating cord introduced in Europe.

1907

Consumption of black powder in U.S. more than 287 million pounds.

1917

U.S. Explosives Act sets regulations for purchases.

1921

U.S. National Academy of Sciences studies Ammonium Nitrate (AN) after explosion in Oppau, Germany.

1924

Largest industrial blast to date in U.S. fired at California Blue Diamond quarry using 328,000 lbs. of dynamite 1924.

Mid 1920’s

Liquid Oxygen based explosives commercialized in U.S.

1931

Fiberboard cases approved for dynamite shipping.

1938

Modern PETN-filled fabric-covered detonating cord introduced in U.S.

1939

U.S. Bureau of Mines begins work on vibration standards.
Modern plastic explosives invented during WWII.

1946

Short interval millisecond delay electric blasting caps introduced.

1950’s.

High-speed photography for blast analysis introduced.

Late 1950’s

Prilled AN fuel mixture begins to replace dynamite.
Bulk trucks and loaders developed.

1969

Emulsion explosives introduced.

Late-1980’s

Electronic delay detonators (EDD’s) introduced.

1992

Explosives used to extinguish most of 700 Kuwaiti oil well fires after Gulf War.

1995

One dynamite plant still operating in the United States.
Australia’s largest shot ever, 1.25 million pounds of explosives at Ord River project.

Tuesday, 15 May 2012

What is a bomb / explosive ?

The are many bomb / explosive types available, some very basic ones that yield little power and some which can cause mass destruction. But what's important is to know that an explosion from a bomb occurs as a result of an endothermic chemical reaction, which is one that releases vast amounts of heat energy and takes place very quickly, thus releasing an explosion. The chemical reactants the bomb maker decides to use reflects on the power of the bomb, since some chemical reactions release more energy than others. Noble gases and alkali metals are among some of the most reactive elements in the periodic table and their compounds are likely bomb materials.